CSE 130 SP16- Homework #2 (140 pts)

Due by 23:59 pm on Friday, April 22th, 2016.

NOTE: To get the code provided for problem 2 to work on Windows/Mac please install ImageMagick Remember that this is only to enable you to play with the assignment at home.


The objective of this assignment is for you to have fun learning about recursion, recursive datatypes, and make some pretty cool pictures.All the problems require relatively little code ranging from 2 to 10 lines. If any function requires more than that, you can be sure that you need to rethink your solution.

The assignment is in the file hw2.ml that you need to download, edit and submit. As before, your task is to replace each expression of the form

failwith "to be written"

with the the appropriate OCaml code for each of those expressions.

Note: All the solutions can be done using the purely functional fragment of OCaml, using constructs covered in class, and most require the use of recursion. Solutions using imperative features such as references, while loops or library functions will receive no credit It is a good idea to start this assignment early; ML programming, while quite simple (when you know how), often seems somewhat foreign at first, particularly when it comes to recursion and list manipulation.

Assignment Testing and Evaluation

Your functions/programs must compile and run with ocaml-top on ieng6.ucsd.edu.

Most of the points, will be awarded automatically, by evaluating your functions against a given test suite. hw2.ml contains a very small suite of tests which gives you a flavor of of these tests.

At any point, hit fast-forward button (shown above) labeled run the current program as far as possible to get a report on how your code stacks up against the simple tests.

The last line of the interactive shell must contain the word:


- : int * int = (SCORE, TOTAL) 

where SCORE and TOTAL are a pair of integers, reflecting your score and the max possible score on the sample tests.

If instead an error message appears, your code will receive a zero.

If for some problem, you cannot get the code to compile, leave it as is with the failwith ... with your partial solution enclosed below as a comment.

The other lines will give you a readout for each test. You are encouraged to try to understand the testing code, but you will not be graded on this.

Submission Instructions

  1. Keep your hw2.ml loaded (and saved) in the editor pane,

  2. Hit the green tick mark button to submit your code.

turnin will provide you with a confirmation of the submission process; make sure that the size of the file indicated by turnin matches the size of your file. See the ACS Web page on turnin for more information on the operation of the program.

Problem #1: Tail Recursion

We say that a function is tail recursive if every recursive call is a tail call whose value is immediately returned by the procedure. See these two handouts for more details on what a tail-recursive function is in Ocaml.

(a) 15 points

Without using any built-in ML functions, write a tail-recursive Ocaml function

val assoc : int * string * (string * int) list -> int 

or more generally,

val assoc : 'a * 'b * ('b * 'a) list -> 'a 

that takes a triple (v, k, [(k1,v1);...;(kn,vn)]) and finds the first ki that equals k. If such a ki is found, then the function should return vi, otherwise, the default value v is returned.

Once you have implemented the function, you should get the following behavior at the ML prompt:

# assoc (-1,"william",[("ranjit",85);("william",23);("moose",44)]);;    
- : int = 23

# assoc (-1,"bob",[("ranjit",85);("william",23);("moose",44)]);;
- : int = -1 

(b) 15 points

Without using any built-in ML functions, modify the skeleton for removeDuplicates to obtain a function of type

val removeDuplicates : int list -> int list

or more generally,

val removeDuplicates : 'a list -> 'a list

such that removeDuplicates xs returns the list of elements of xs with the duplicates, i.e. second, third, etc. occurrences, removed, and where the remaining elements appear in the same order as in xs.

For this function only, you may use the library functions List.rev and List.mem. Once you have implemented the function, you should get the following behavior at the ML prompt:

# removeDuplicates [1;6;2;4;12;2;13;6;9];;
- : int list = [1;6;2;4;12;13;9]

(c) 20 points

Without using any built-in ML functions, or the while or for construct, write a tail-recursive ML function:

val wwhile : (int -> int * bool) * int -> int

or more generally,

val wwhile : ('a -> 'a * bool) * 'a -> 'a 

such that wwhile (f, x) returns x' where there exist values v_0,…,v_n such that

Your function should be tail recursive. Once you have implemented the function, you should get the following behavior at the ML prompt:

# let f x = let xx = x*x*x in (xx, xx < 100) in wwhile (f,2);;
- : int = 512

(d) 20 points

Without using any built-in ML functions, modify the skeleton for fixpoint to obtain a function

val fixpoint: (int -> int) * int -> int 

or more generally,

val fixpoint: ('a -> 'a) * 'a -> 'a 

such that fixpoint (f, x0) returns the first xi where

Once you have implemented the function, you should get the following behavior at the ML prompt:

# let g x = truncate (1e6 *. cos (1e-6 *. float x));;
val f : int -> int = fn

# fixpoint (g, 0);; 
- : int = 739085

# let collatz n = match n with 1 -> 1 | _ when n mod 2 = 0 -> n/2 | _ -> 3*n + 1;;
val collatz: int -> int = fn

# fixpoint (collatz, 1) ;;
- : int = 1
# fixpoint (collatz, 3) ;;
- : int = 1
# fixpoint (collatz, 48) ;;
- : int = 1
# fixpoint (collatz, 107) ;;
- : int = 1
# fixpoint (collatz, 9001) ;;
- : int = 1

Problem #2: Random Art

At the end of this assignment, you should be able to produce pictures of the kind shown below. To do so, we shall devise a grammar for a certain class of expressions, design an ML datatype whose values correspond to such expressions, write code to evaluate the expressions, and then write a function that randomly generates such expressions and plots them thus producing random psychedelic art.

Color Images


Gray Scale Images


(a) 15 points

The expressions described by the grammar:

e ::= x 
    | y 
    | sin (pi*e) 
    | cos (pi*e) 
    | ((e + e)/2) 
    | e * e 
    | (e<e ? e : e)

where pi stands for the constant 3.142, are functions over the variables x,y, which are guaranteed to produce a value in the range [-1,1] when x and y are in that range. We can represent expressions of this grammar in ML using values of the following datatype:

type expr = VarX 
          | VarY 
          | Sine of expr 
          | Cosine of expr 
          | Average of expr * expr 
          | Times of expr * expr 
          | Thresh of expr * expr * expr * expr 

First, write a function

val exprToString : expr -> string

to enable the printing of expressions. Once you have implemented the function, you should get the following behavior at the ML prompt:

# let sampleExpr1 = Thresh(VarX,VarY,VarX,(Times(Sine(VarX),Cosine(Average(VarX,VarY)))));;
- : expr =  ...

# exprToString sampleExpr1 
- : string = "(x<y?x:sin(pi*x)*cos(pi*((x+y)/2)))"

(b) 15 points

Next, write a function

val eval : expr * float * float -> float

such that eval (e, vx, vy) returns the result of evaluating the expression e at the point (vx, vy) that is, evaluating the result of e when VarX has the value vx and VarY has the value vy. You should use Ocaml functions like, sin, and cos to build your evaluator. Recall that Sine(VarX) corresponds to the expression sin(pi*x)

Once you have implemented the function, you should get the following behavior at the ML prompt:

# eval (Sine(Average(VarX,VarY)),0.5,-0.5);;
- : float = 0.0 

# eval (Sine(Average(VarX,VarY)),0.3,0.3);;
- : float = 0.809016994375

# eval (sampleExpr,0.5,0.2);;
- : float = 0.118612572815

Uncomment and execute the line:

let _ = emitGrayscale (eval_fn sampleExpr, 150, "sample") ;;

to generate the grayscale image art_g_sample.jpg in your working directory. To receive full credit, this image must look like the leftmost grayscale image displayed above. Note that this requires your implementation eval to work correctly. A message Uncaught exception ... is an indication that your eval is returning a value outside the valid range [-1.0,1.0].

(c) 20 points

Next, you must fill in an implementation for the function

val build: ((int * int -> int) * int) -> expr

The function build is called with the pair of arguments (rand, depth).

With this in place you can generate random art using the functions

val doRandomGray : int * int * int -> unit
val doRandomColor : int * int * int -> unit

Each function takes as a parameter a triple (depth, seed1, seed2) where depth is the depth of the expression to be generated and seed1, seed2 are two seeds for the random number generator. The functions generate JPEG files called art_g_<depth>_<seed1>_<seed2>.jpg and art_c_<depth>_<seed1>_<seed2>.jpg respectively. The first is a gray scale image, built by mapping out a single randomly generated expression over the plane, and the second is a color image built using three functions for the intensities of red, green and blue.

Play around with how you generate the expressions, using the tips below.

Save the parameters (i.e. the depth and the seeds) for your best three color images in the bodies of c1, c2, c3 respectively, and best three gray images in g1, g2 , g3.

(d) 20 points

Finally, add two new operators to the grammar, i.e. to the datatype, by introducing two new datatype constructors, and adding the corresponding cases to exprToString, eval, and build. The only requirements are that the operators must return values in the range [-1.0,1.0] if their arguments (ie VarX and VarY) are in that range, and that one of the operators take three arguments, i.e. one of the datatype constructors is of the form: C of expr * expr * expr You can include images generated with these new operators when choosing your best images for part (c).

(e) Extra Credit: 15 points

The creators of the best five images, will get extra credit. Be creative!